Richard W. Dugan has served as Lead Independent Director since June 2022 and has served as a Director of Vanda since 2005. Mr. Dugan was a Partner with Ernst & Young, LLP from 1976 to September 2002, where he held a variety of managing and senior partner positions, including Mid-Atlantic Area Senior Partner from 2001 to 2002, Mid-Atlantic Area Managing Partner from 1989 to 2001 and Pittsburgh Office Managing Partner from 1979 to 1989. Mr. Dugan retired from Ernst & Young, LLP in September 2002. Mr. Dugan holds a B.S.B.A. from Pennsylvania State University.